Traumatic mental state and even lead to unconsciousness.

Traumatic Brian Injury (TBI) has received increased attention in the world of sports in the United States in recent years. Traumatic Brain Injury is an injury that can happen to anyone in just about any sport. For example, it is easy to trip while walking or slip down and hit your head on the ground. Throughout history, there has been a tendency for people to ignore the symptoms of a possible traumatic brain injury as a serious injury. There will continue to be dangers for athletes in just about any sport. Accidents or hits to the head can result in injuries which can lead to serious health issues such as traumatic brain injury. Chronic traumatic brain injuries are conditions that have to be taken seriously in order to help prevent health disorders later in life for millions of people. This essay will define and discuss causes, symptoms and risk factors of TBI. In an effort to bring awareness to this subject vital statistics, case study and the treatment about the chronic effects of traumatic brain injuries will be discussed. TBI is a serious health risk that effects millions of people. To experience a full and productive life, more people must be made aware of the causes, symptoms, risks, chronic effects and treatment of TBI. 
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a buffet to the head that interrupts the typical function of the brain. TBI is caused when the head is roughly hit by an object that punctures the skull and enters the brain tissue. TBI can lead to a concussion which is caused by a hit to the face, neck, or anywhere on the body with an impetuous force to the head. TBI can result in a different mental state and even lead to unconsciousness. There are many different symptoms associated with TBI. Contrary to what some people think, a person may or may not lose consciousness. Common symptoms include headache, dizziness, fainting, nausea, blurred vision, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to noise, memory loss, confusion, drowsiness, anxiety, irritability, and slurred speech. However, the more severe the concussion, the more severe the symptoms can be. The symptoms for individuals who undergo rehabilitation commonly have failure of memory, behavioral changes, emotional problems such as anxiety or depression, changes in sleep patterns, declines in intellectual ability, and seizures. Psychological counseling and brain injury support groups are available to help patients and families deal with the long-term rehabilitation process. Patients that end up in a coma or a persistent vegetative state (PVS) usually of the most severe types of brain injury. The PVS can proceed for several years. During the process of PVS, patients are not mindful of their surroundings, but still acquire basic reflexes and sleep cycles. Patients with PVS that last longer than three months have a minor chance of recovery, however, other patients with PVS more than six months seldom recover. Signs of brain injury may include short and long term memory loss, inability to learn, concentrating properly, difficulties with speech and communication, and being unstable (Herbert). There are different risk factors, different groups, and types of activities. 
Players who participate in sports, such as football, soccer, or hockey are more at risk and in the most danger of getting a severe brain injury. Boxers, who are hit repeatedly in the head, may have permanent disabilities from the result of an injury to the brain. Athletes should take out time to get a health examination to check for any injuries to the brain before any sports-related activities (AANS). There are additional risk from repeated head trauma causing minor brain injuries, such as concussions. Research conducted by Boston University, one of the largest CTE brain banks, examined 165 total brains of former football players and found evidence of CTE in 97% of professional players and 79% of all players. The risk of CTE has also been identified in athletes from other sports, that include professional ice hockey and baseball. Studies from Mayo Clinic shows that no evidence of CTE was found in 198 people with no history of participating in contact sports or other head injury sports (Cunniff). Statistics show that many people are impacted by TBI.
Statistic show that more than 750,000 people in the United States are injured while playing sports. More than 81,000 of these injuries result in traumatic brain injuries (AANS). Each year, the United States emergency departments, treats about 135,000 children ages five to eighteen. These injuries are mostly concussions, and the children usually recover. More than 1.7 million people a year injure their brains in an accident, from playing on the field or falling. About 75% are concussions. 52,000 people die a year from brain injuries and 275,000 are hospitalized. Following motor vehicle accidents, involvement of sports is the second most common cause of head injury. The most delicate indicator as to when a TBI has occurred is a sudden change in a person’s mental status. Athletes should all undergo neurocognitive testing before involving themselves in any type of sports to initiate a baseline level of brain function in terms of memory, attention, problem solving, and other measures (Powers). Numerous case studies have been conducted on concussions and traumatic brain injuries. 
One study involved Joelle, a senior at LaFargeville Central School in New York, who suffered a brain injury in 2015. Joelle stated, “The girl standing next to me on the opposing team hadn’t jumped yet, so when she turned, her arm swiped my leg and I fell and landed on my lower back,” Joelle explained last month in an interview in her school’s library. “My head never hit the floor, which makes my situation so unique.” Joelle said that her high school, has been dynamic in helping to prevent concussions. “I want to make it a requirement that at the beginning of every school year, students have to take this test,” Joelle said. “After a concussion, you can take it again and it can be measured how severe a concussion is based on certain categories and maybe what parts of your brain were affected,” Joelle stated. Joelle was sent home the night of her incident, and within weeks, she returned back to the emergency room and more concussion symptoms appeared, such as vomiting and headaches. “At other times, I would go through these episodes, where for a couple hours at a time out of nowhere, I would start acting like a child,” Joelle said. “My thinking would be logical, but what I was saying was very immature. That made my parents very nervous.” Then, she was taken to Upstate Gulisano Children’s Hospital in Syracuse, New York. After a few days, she was diagnosed with post-concussive syndrome. It is a complex disorder in multiple symptoms, including headaches and dizziness. Joelle was out of school for two months and later had more syndrome symptoms (Brock). Joelle is just one of thousands of untold stories about the effects of traumatic brain injuries. 
Recent concern about the long-term effects of traumatic brain injuries related to contact sports has increased tremendously. The increasing number of former football players damaged by a neurodegenerative condition and the National Football League (NFL), which has mostly contradicted any association between football and degenerative disease. Countless stories have been written about the disastrous deaths of former athletes. Will Smith, a famous actor, starred in a film about the pathologist who first identified malformations in a former NFL player’s brain. It is censorious to consider what current research reveals, what still needs to be done, and why it is so difficult to make definitive claims. Neurodegeneration, connected with repeated head trauma had been described since the 1920s in boxers, but it was not until 2005 that the first case of CTE was diagnosed in an athlete from another sport (Cunniff). 
CTE is an enfeeble disease. Patients suffer from steadily worsening cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms, including turbulent moods, personality changes, and memory loss. These symptoms; however, typically appear about a decade after initial brain trauma, which makes it difficult to connect earlier injuries with an eventual CTE diagnosis. The only way to diagnose CTE is to examine brain tissue after death. Much like Alzheimer’s disease, CTE causes atypical buildups of a protein called tau. It is not known how these tau buildups are linked to the behavioral symptoms of CTE, but they are a key product for diagnosis. Because postmortem analysis is the only way to diagnose CTE, several brain banks dedicated to CTE have been established. In an effort to overcome the damaging and lasting efforts of TBI, athletes should seek medical attention which includes regular testing (Cunniff).
Athletes should all undergo cognitive testing before playing in any type of sports. It is important athletes initiate a baseline level of brain function in terms of memory, attention, problem solving, and other measures (Powers). Athletes with Grade 5 injuries, may suffer by bleeding in the brain and increased intracranial pressure. Athletes who have lost consciousness for more than five minutes or experienced amnesia for more than a day is in the Grade 5 injury category. Athletes must complete the five-day return-to-play activity protocol before returning to his or her sports activities. After a while, athletes are able to return to play after six months if an MRI indicates that there is no evidence of any structural damage inside the brain. They must be cleared by a neurologist or neurosurgeon (Mullally). 
There is much to be done to educate, protect, diagnose and treat individuals who suffer from TBI. It is clear that a lot remains to be known about the long-term effects of concussions, especially the relationship between tedious concussions and persistent traumatic brain injuries. Physicians and scientists continue to research this topic in order to make sports safe and enjoyable with less risks.  
  

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