Table tachycardia. Heart rate is simply measured by

Table
of Contents

 

1.      Introduction..………………………………………………………………..2

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2.      Literature
survey.……………………………………………………………3

3.      Correlating
theoretical concepts ………………………………………………4

4.      Design
of the System ………………………………………………………5

5.      Methodology…………………………………………………………….….6

6.      Tools
used……………………………………………………………….….7

7.      Results/Snapshots……………………………………………………………8

8.      Conclusion….………………………………………………………….……12

9.      References
and Bibliography……………………………………………….13

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The heart rate
monitor is a personal monitoring device that allows to measure person heart
rate in real time or record their heart rate for Analysis. The heart rate of a
healthy adult at rest is around 72 beats per minute (bpm)  & Babies at around 120 beats per minute
(bpm), while older children have heart rates at around 90 bpm. The heart rate
rises gradually during exercises and slowly returns to the normal value after
exercise 2. When the pulse rate returns to normal is an indication of the
fitness of the person. Lower than the normal heart rates are usually an indication
of a condition known as bradycardia, while higher is known as tachycardia.  Heart rate is simply measured by placing the
thumb over the subject’s arterial pulsation, and feeling, timing and counting
the pulses within in 30 seconds. Heart rate (bpm) of the person is then found
by multiplying the obtained number by 2. This method although simple but it is
not accurate and can give errors when the rate is high. There are more
sophisticated methods to measure the heart rate utilize electronic techniques.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the frequently used methods for measuring the
heart rate but it is an expensive device. Low-cost devices in the form of wrist
watches are also available for the instant measurement of the heart rate and
these devices can give accurate measurements but their cost is usually in
excess of several hundred dollars, making them uneconomical. Hence this heart
rate monitor is definitely a useful instrument in knowing the pulse of the
subject or the patient.

 

Significance Of
Heart beat

 Heart
work is to  pump blood  that circulates oxygen and nutrient around
the body in order to keep it functioning. When the force  is exerted the rate at which the heart beats
will changes proportional to the amount of effort being exerted. By checking the
voltage created by the beating of the heart, its rate can be easily observed
and used for a number of health purposes. Heart works to pump oxygen-rich blood
to your muscles and to carry cell waste products away from your muscles. The
heart rate gives fair indication during exercise routines of how effective that
routine is improving your health.  

Heart rate
measurement indicates the wellness  of
the human cardiovascular system. In clinical environment, heart rate is checked
under controlled conditions like blood measurement, heart voice measurement,
and Electrocardiogram (ECG) etc. Our heart works to pump oxygen-rich blood to
our muscles and to carry cell waste products away from our muscles. The more we
use our muscles, the harder our heart works to performs these tasks implies our
heart must beat faster to deliver more blood. A heart rate measurement means
to take a sample of heartbeats and measure the Beats per Minute (bpm) so that
the information can easily be used to track heart condition. The average normal
human heart rate is about 70 bpm for adult males and 75 bpm for adult females.
Heart rate changes significantly between individuals based on fitness, age and
genetics. Professional athletes often have very low resting heart rates. Heart
rate can be found by measuring one’s pulse 2. If heart rate is lower than
normal the condition is known as bradycardia, in the opposite case it is known
as tachycardia.

Internet of things

The Internet of
things (stylised Internet of Things or IoT) is the internet working of physical
devices, vehicles (also referred to as “connected devices” and
“smart devices”), buildings and other items— embedded with electronics,
software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these
objects to collect and exchange data. In 2013 the Global Standards Initiative
on Internet of Things (IoT-GSI) defined the IoT as “the infrastructure of
the information society.” The IoT allows the external objects to be sensed
and controlled remotely across the existing network infrastructure that creates
opportunities for more direct integration of physical world into computer-based
systems, and resulting in improvement of various parameters like efficiency,
accuracy and economic benefit.

The
Pulse Sensor Amped is a plug-and-play heart-rate sensor that can be connected
with Arduino. It can be used by students, artists, athletes, makers, game &
mobile developers who want to easily incorporate live heart-rate data into
their projects. It essentially combines a simple optical heart rate sensor with
amplification and noise cancellation circuit making it easy and fast to get
reliable pulse readings. Also, it consumes power with just 4 microAmp current
draw at 5 Voltage so it’s great for mobile applications. Simply clip the Pulse
Sensor to your earlobe or fingertip and plug it into your 3 or 5 Volt Arduino
and you’re ready to read heart rate! The 24″ cable on the Pulse Sensor is
terminated with standard male headers so there’s no soldering required. Of
course Arduino example code is available as well as a Processing sketch for
visualizing heart rate data.

 

LITERATURE
SURVEY

1) It is been estimated that India will
soon overthrow the US and may become the largest hub of heart disease1.

2) A person is more prone to the heart
attack during early sleeping hours2.

3) Heart attack is been regarded as
leading cause of death worldwide 3.

4)Every minute a person dies of heart
attack and every 1/3 of a minute a person experience heart attack4.

5 ) Heart attack is been regarded as the
biggest cause of death among old adults resulting over 2.5 lakh death each year
5.

Current technology consists of optical
and electrical monitors. The electrical method provides a bulky strap around
one’s chest. The optical method does not require the strap and can be used more
conveniently than the electrical method. There are many constraints in producing
a heart monitor. First, the technology used to measure the pulse has to be
determined. A cost efficient way of measuring the pulse is the combination of a
led and photo-sensor

 

CORRELATING
THEORETICAL CONCEPT

1.
Internet of things

IoT stands for  Internet of things. It  is the  
internetworking of physical devices, vehicles , buildings and other
items— embedded with  electronics,  software, 
sensors, actuators, and  network
connectivity that help these objects to collect and exchange data. The IoT
lets  objects to be sensed and controlled
remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for
more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and
resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.  

When IoT is combined  with sensors and actuators, the technology
becomes an instance of the more general class of  cyber-physical systems, which also
encompasses technologies such as  smart
grids,  smart homes,  intelligent transportation and  smart cities. Each object can be uniquely
identified through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate
within the existing Internet infrastructure. It is believed that the IoT will
consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020. Basically, Internet of Things
full fills most of the advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services
that goes beyond machine-to-machine (M2M) communications and covers a variety
of protocols, domains, and applications.

2.Firebase

Firebase is
a commercially available backend platform for building Web, Android and IOS
applications. It offers features like real time database, different APIs,
multiple authentication types and hosting platforms.

Firebase
is a real time database. It is a schema less database in which the data is
stored in JSON format. In short entire database is a big JSON(JavaScript
Object Notation) tree with multiple nodes. So before planning your database,
you need to prepare the JSON structure in a way that the data is accessible in
easier way by avoiding nesting of child nodes. It by default stores the data
offline when there is no internet connection. When the device connects to
internet, all the data will be pushed to realtime database. 

Firebase is a simple and
user friendly as there is no need for complicated configuration. It works
in  real-time, which means that every
change will automatically update connected clients. Firebase offers user interactive
and simple control dashboard. Firebase
unpaid  plan is limited to 50 Connections
and 100 MB of storage.

3.Android

Android is
a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and
designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Android’s user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch
gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping,
tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual
keyboard for text input. In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has further
developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear
for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android
are also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

METHODOLOGY

In this project
we are using Spiral model which is similar to the incremental model, with more
emphasis placed on risk analysis.

The spiral model
is similar to the incremental model, with more emphasis placed on risk
analysis. The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis,
Engineering and Evaluation. A software project repeatedly passes through these
phases in iterations (called Spirals in this model). The baseline spiral,
starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk is assessed.
Each subsequent spirals builds on the baseline spiral. Its one of the software
development models like Waterfall, Agile, V-Model

The spiral model
has four phases

l  Planning

l  Risk Analysis

l  Engineering

l  Evaluation

Planning Phase:
Requirements like Bussiness Requirement Specifications and System Requirement
specifications are gathered during the planning phase.

Risk Analysis:
In this phase a process is undertaken to identify risks and find alternative
solutions. A prototype is developed at the end of the risk analysis phase. If
any risk is found during this stage then other methods are suggested and
implemented.

Engineering
Phase: In this phase software is developed. Testing is done at the end of the
phase. Hence in this phase the development and testing is done.

Evaluation phase: At this phase the customers are
allowed to evaluate the output of the present project before the project
continues to the next spiral.

Advantages of Spiral model:

l  High
amount of risk analysis hence, avoidance of Risk is enhanced.

l  Good
for large and mission-critical projects.

l  Strong
approval and documentation control.

l  Additional
Functionality can be added at a later date.

l  Software
is produced early in the software life cycle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOOLS
USED

The
Pulse Sensor unit

The Heartbeat sensor is a monitoring
system that allows one to measure his or her heart rate in real time and record
the heart rate for later study and analysis. It provides a simple way to study
the functioning of heart. This sensor monitors the flow of blood through the
finger and gives digital output of the heartbeat when a finger is placed on it.
When the sensor is working, the beat LED flashes in units on with each
heartbeat. This digital output can be connected to the microcontroller directly
to measure the Beats per Minute (BPM) value. This works on the principle of
light modulation,where blood flow through finger at each pulse. The Pulse
Sensor is a well designed plug and play heart rate sensor for Arduino. It also includes
an open source monitoring app that graphs your pulse in real time and send the
data to cloud.

The
Arduino Uno Board

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller
board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins
(of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic
resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button.
It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller;

Android
smartphone

A smart band will be connected to the android
phone with the help of Bluetooth. The band will be transmitting the data to the
smartphone with the help of Bluetooth. In the android smartphone users has to
install android application which will be collecting the data from the smart
band through cloud.

This application will monitor the user’s
health and will keep a record of it. When the user’s heartbeat is above the
critical level, then it will send emergency notification to the saved contacts.
The user has to enter the details like contact number, that will be used in
case of emergency. The application will also notify to the ambulance service.
The smart band will be monitoring the heartbeat of the user and changes the
critical level according to it or it can be manually entered by the user, as critical
level varies from person to person.

Notifying the emergency
contact

The user has to enter details of the contacts, whom
the application will alert during emergency cases. It is also recommended to
add the details of ambulance and doctor’s in case of emergency. The application
will use SMS to alert the emergency contacts. Whenever the user’s heart rate is
in critical level the android application will send notification to all
emergency contacts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

We are developing a system which able to detect any
fluctuation in heart beat and heart attack by tracking heartbeat of a user in
coming future as the technology gets advance more feature will be added to the
system. Long waiting time for hospitalization or ambulatory patient
monitoring/treatment, are
other well-known issues for both the healthcare institutions and the patients.
This project provides healthcare authorities to maximize the quality and
effective healthcare services by controlling costs. This
proposed system will help all age group people to track their heart rate and in
case of any necessity it will notify to emergency contact and to the hospital.
It can also be used by the users who have just under gone to heart surgery to
keep tract of their heart beats throughout the day.

 

Heart beat readings are by far the only viable diagnostic tool
that could promote early detection of cardiac events. Wireless components and
mobile technologies are key components that would help enable patients
suffering from chronic heart diseases to live in their own homes and lead their
normal life, while at the same time being monitored for any cardiac events and
can be effectively managed. This will not only serve to reduce the burden on
the resources of the healthcare center but would also improve the quality of
healthcare sector. In this project, the heart beat
rate of the patient is sensed. When the implant detects a heart beat rate, it
will alert the mobile device which in turn will automatically send the message
and provide the patient’s condition and its profile so that the patient will be
given respective medical attention within the first few critical hours, thus
greatly improving his or her chances of survival.

 

This algorithm deals only
with single patient. This algorithm can be extended to multiple doctors and
multiple patients. In future we can also design PC software to analyze this
received signal and generate the report and this can be sent back to the
doctor. With the connection established between two ends we can also send
patient’s blood pressure to doctor’s side.

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

1internet of things: internet of things, https://
en. wikipedia.org/wiki/internet_of_things.

 

2 effective ways to use internet of things in the
field of medical and smart health care: kaleem ullah,munam ali shah,sijing
zhang, ieee journal 2016

 

3 irehmo: an efficient iot-based remote health
monitoring system for smart regions, ngo manh kohi, karan mitra , 2015 17th
international conference on e-health networking, application & services
(healthcom)

 

4 mobile based horne automation using internet of
things(iot), kumar mandula, ram parupalli, e.magesh , 2015 international
conference on control, lnstrumentation, communication and computational
technologies (lccicct)

 

5 heartbeat monitoring and alert system using gsm
technology, ufaraoh s.u,oranugo c.o, international journal of engineering
research and general science volume 3, issue 4, july-august, 2015 issn
2091-2730

 

6 heart rate monitoring and heart attack detection
,mamidi manisha, katakan neeraja, international journal of innovations in
engineering and technology (ijiet)

 

7     
myocardial infarction: https://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/ myocardial_
infarction

 

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