Since it seems to be. Despite the emptiness

Since inception, man has been craving for easier life. The curiosity of man has led to several invention and many things invented has been modified and remodified several times so has to make life easier than it seems to be. Despite the emptiness of the earth from onset, nature gave us many thing that can serve as prototype to what man need for the advancement of his life and scientists and engineers has succeeded in replicating the work of nature and they are still working on replicate others. Man in his curiosity still believe that currently there are many things that are uninvented and some though seems to me make life easy but can still be modified to make it a lot more easier than it is now. Just like the popular saying necessity is the mother of invention, man in his quest for better life stumbled across many great development in the field of science and engineering. Several academic field like mechanical engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, petroleum engineering, aeronautical engineering, material science and engineering, nanoengineering, etc. were created. Nanoengineering can traced back to the year 1959 when renowned physicist, Richard Feynman gave talk titled “there is plenty of room at the bottom” at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. And since then, tremendous advances have been made in almost all aspect of life and hardly will you see a field where the effect of nanotechnology and engineering has not been felt. What is NanoEngineering? To define nanoengineering, we need to define and understand nanoscience and nanotechnology. Nanoscience is the science that study the behavior and arrangement of matter at atomic level while nanotechnology deals with manipulation of matter at nano level (10-9). Nanoengineering can also be refers to as nanotechnology engineering and it can be described as the branch of engineering that utilises the findings of nanoscience and nanotechnology in conjunction with engineering knowledge to design materials and useful product at nano level. Nanoengineering is mostly refers to as nanotechnology but it emphasizes on the engineering rather than the science. On daily basis, we see things that needed to be small getting smaller and all products whose weight are not desirable are getting lighter. For instance, the weight is not desirable in devices like TV, laptop, phone but the screen size is of great importance. So therefore, many TV, laptop, phone are getting lighter whereas the screen size still remain the same or getting wider. This is as a result of the design of new materials that has can function like the old materials but are lighter in weight.    History of nanoengineering and nanotechnology Nanoengineering is relatively new field of engineering as it origin can be traced back to the talk titled “There is plenty of room at the bottom” given by renowned physicist Richard Feynman during a conference at California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. His ideology started with an illustration of how it is possible to write the lords prayer on the tip of a pen. He later extended the idea to the 24 volume of Britannica encyclopedia and the whole information in the world which is estimated to be 1015 bits. This dream of Feynman has been accomplished and exceeded in the past decade most especially since the invention of Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy by Binning and Rohrer. It has also been shown that a single atom cannot only be conveniently represented for human eye but can be manipulated as well (William et. al). Right now, microchips contain close to 100million transistor and these transistor can save a very large information like the Britannica encyclopedia. In fact, it is expected that the size of current microchips will be improved and scale down to a level where a single chip could hold a large amount of transistors.  Approach to nanotechnology There are two main methods used in nanotechnology (1) the top-down method and (2) the bottom-up method. The Top-down approach starts from the bulk of the material and work on it down to the nano size particle of the material. This is always achieved through grinding, milling, carving, etc. The bottom-up approach start by operation the material from the atomic level and build the material to the needed level. The concept of self-assembly is widely use by this approach. The self-assembly is a phenomena where molecules arrange themselves into a predefined form. The bottom up approach can be carried out in fluid or solid phase while the top down method is carried our in solid phase. The bottom up is more flexible, efficient and easy to synthesis than the top down approach. Application of nanoengineering Nanoengineering and nanotechnology has helped in all field and it offers tremendous advantage compare with the little disadvantage that some experts presumed it posses. Some of the advantages nanotechnology offers are (1) Nanotechnology can help lower cost of manufacturing (2) It can help improve mileage in automobile automatically (3) it help saves consumer’s money (4) it make life easier (5) it make products stronger durable and lighter (6) it help fight cancer and some disease (nanomedicine). Nanotechnology and engineering can he described as a general purpose technology because it is useful in all industries and it has impacted in all areas of life. Few area where nanoengineering has impacted area illustrated below: Biotechnology and Medical field. Nanotechnology has had immense effect in the medical and biotechnological field. In order to understand biological system and their phenomena, nanoengineering has helped design new nanostructures by mimicking the structure of living system. Nanoengineering and nanotechnology has helped improve healthcare and medical researches in designing nanobased product (cosmetic, drug delivery, imaging and medical diagnosis, tissue engineering, needle for painless drug infusion etc.). The incorporation of nanoengineering to medicine has given birth to nanomedicine which is aimed at designing products that can be use to prevent, diagnose and treat different diseases. Nanoengineering has been of great help in tissue engineering by designing medical prosthesis and implants that can function in place of the natural organs. Energy sector: The rapid increase in human population world wide has increase the need for more energy. In order to meet the rising demand of energy, there is need to improve the efficiency of the present energy source. Apart from improving the energy efficiency, there is a challenge of developing clean energy. For instance, solar panel use to occupy large space and expensive to build from the onset yet the most efficient solar panel is around 25%. Nanoengineering has helped improve the efficiency of solar panels and reduce the size of the solar panels drastically by using material that has higher storage capability. Nanoengineering and nanotechnology has made a great stride at solving both problem of clean energy generation and improving the efficiency of the present energy. Nanostructures are been used in the production of lithium batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, etc. and there are several researches on building materials from the nano level so as to keep improving the efficiency of solar cells.  Materials science: Material scientists and engineers are faced with many challenges in building needed material for certain operations. Nanoengineering has helped solve most of these problem by designing those materials from the atomic level. For instance, there is a novel innovation for the design of nanostructures for artificial implantation. The hardest natural substance known is diamond but nanoengineering has help built nanostructural material that is as hard as diamond. A material called grapheme has also been created with the knowledge of nanotechnology. It has some unusual properties, it is the strongest material ever tested, unlike diamond it  conduct heat and electricity and it is transparent. It application span through almost all industries like energy sector, smartphone industries, optical industries etc. Many automobile manufacturer have started using nanocomposite to build vehicles. It help reduce weight of the automobile and this invariably reduce fuel consumption. Environmental science: Nanotechnology and Nanoengineering has been improving the environment by detecting and removing pollutant from soil and groundwater. There are several impurities that are as small as 10-9m in the environment and these material can only be detected and capture by a device that function at nano level. Nanoadsorbent and nanomembrane play a very important role in water and air purification.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is trying to put a halt to nanotechnology until scientists and engineers can make nanotechnology a little more environmental friendly but there is little or no negative effect of nanotechnology on humanity. The EPA believed that the size of these particles is so small (10-9m) make it hard for the particles to be noticed in the environment. But several investigation has been carried out and it was discovered that the particles from Nanoengineering operations has no devastating effect on man.   Future of nanoengineering The question is what is the limit of nanoengineering? Nanoengineering and Nanotechnology is the main driver of the future. With Nanoengineering, nothing seems impossible and the future is endless. Have you ever think of never getting your cloth dirty? Very soon, there will be no need for washing clothes as most of the future clothes will be self-cleaning just like the lotus leaf. The thickness of the next generation of television and smartphone could be as flat as a razor blade and as light as a sheet of paper. With the help of nanoengineering and nanotechnology, the mission to the sun could be accomplished very soon. Improvement is expected in future automobiles and aircrafts as lighter and stronger materials are been made persistently. Many drugs has been delivered by nanomedicine and it is certain that solution for most of the dreadful diseases (like Alzheimer disease) that humanity is currently encountering will be available soon.  

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