Sea structure that includes ice crystals as well

Sea ice is a thin
and solid layer that forms by the freezing of surface seawater and is
characterized by a multiphase structure that includes ice crystals as well as gas,
liquid brines, solid salts and other impurities (Thomas and Diekmann, 2009). InM1  low temperatures, sea ice forms on the
ocean’s surface, starting as a thin sheet of crystals that grow into a salty
ice. Salt particles called brines are trapped in the ice crystals as they
freeze. When no water turbulences are present, their growth is regular and a
uniform columnar ice type is formed with the c-axis of the crystals aligned in
the horizontal plane. In such a structure, brine inclusions can potentially
migrate downwards along vertically oriented channels whose shape is governed by the temperature (Reid et al.,
2006). Sea ice has a bright surface that reflects sunlight back into space. Because
the areas covered by sea ice absorb little solar energy, the temperatures in
the polar regions are relatively cool.

If the physical
properties of the fresh-water ice, are well known, the sea ice is a relatively
complex substance and its properties are still under study. The transformation
to a completely solid mixture of pure ice and solid salts is attained only at
very low temperatures, so extreme that they are rarely encountered in nature.
The physical properties of sea ice depend strongly on salinity, temperature and
age. (Schwerdtfecer, 1963)

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The salinity of sea ice is governed by both
age and location. For example, because of its rapid formation, Antarctic first
year sea ice contains more brines trapped in its granular structure, and
remains quite saline with time. (Mattei et al., 2017)

Global warming
still affects sea ice formation because when the increasingly warming temperatures
melt sea ice, less bright surfaces are available to reflect sunlight back into
space. The Solar energy is absorbed at the surface, and temperatures increase
further (Weeks, 2010).

The study of Arctic sea ice has recently
gathered importance for both climate change monitoring (Vinnikov et al., 1999; Vihma,
2014) and possible trans-Arctic trade shipping along the Northwest Passage (Ho,
2010).

In the present
study, we focus on the electric and magnetic properties of the sea ice samples
and how these properties vary in function of temperature and frequency.

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