Chapter Technology on the Learning Outcomes in Reading

Chapter IIIMethodology and ProcedureResearch DesignThis research about the Effects of Integration of Audio and Visual Technology on the Learning Outcomes in Reading and Writing course of Grade 11 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) students of Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City, will utilize a Mixed-method Research Design. This design involves the integration of a quantitative and qualitative way of data gathering and analyzing. This would allow a deeper and better understanding of the nature of study including the quantitative and qualitative data that will answer the researcher problems. Through this method the researchers can see the different perspectives of the study rather than using only one of the above mentioned method (quantitative and qualitative) aside from that, the researchers can also have the capability to validate their data because of the presence of two merged methods (quantitative and qualitative).This research is going to use a Sequential Explanatory Design. This design will involve the collection and analysis of quantitative data first then followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data. This method will allow the researchers to examine, analyze, interpret, and contextualize quantitative findings with the help of qualitative data that was gathered. This would also give an opportunity to the researchers to validate and expound the data that was collected aside from that this method will also allow them to strengthen their claims because they have the chance to use the two methods in supporting their quantitative data through qualitative data. In case of discrepancy, this method will allow the researchers to examine in more detail unexpected results from a quantitative data.Variables in Quantitative AnalysisThe first phase of the study involves an independent and dependent variables that are going to measured and analyzed using statistical treatments in order to answer the research questions. This study seeks to investigate the impacts of the integration of audio-visual technology on the learning outcomes in classrooms. The learning outcomes being the dependent variable while the integration of audio-visual technology is the independent variable. This study also involves the learning styles of the students as an extraneous variable. The learning outcomes of the students are going to be measured through assessments given by their instructor and this will depend on whether the instructor used audio-visual aids during the discussion or not. Inevitably, the learning styles of the students will affect how they learn so it is considered as an extraneous variable.Variables in Qualitative AnalysisThe second phase involves an independent and dependent variable as well that are going to be collected through open ended questions. This phase aims to collect feedback from the respondents regarding their experiences during the discussions in the classroom. The students’ experiences serves as the independent variable while their feedbacks will serve as the dependent variable. Of course, the learning styles of the students will still affect their opinions about the usage of audio-visual aids so it is also considered as an extraneous variable.   Target Population and Sampling ProcedureThe intended population for this study is the population of grade 11 STEM students from the Technological Institute of the Philippines. There are 16 sections in the STEM strand each with approximately 60 students per section. Since the study is about the effects of using audio-visual technology in the classroom, the study involved two randomly selected sections that will serve as the controlled and experimental group. The researchers chose to select classrooms using simple random sampling so that every member of the intended population gets equal chance of participating in the study.Phase I: QuantitativeData CollectionThe first phase of the data collection will focus on determining how the integration of audio-visual technology affects learning outcomes in classrooms of grade 11 (STEM) students from the Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City. This phase will utilize the pre-test-post-test design for the gathering data. Data that will measure how the students perform with and without the use of audio-visual technology in quantitative means. Two randomly selected grade 11 STEM classrooms will be participating in this phase. One being the controlled group and the other being the experimental group. These two classrooms will be studying the same lessons under the same instructor and will also be taking the same assessments coming from the instructor. Before the start of the actual data collection, a preliminary survey will be conducted among the members of the sample. This will be composed of a single question about their preferred learning style. After the preliminary survey, both classrooms will study the first lesson without the use of audio-visual aids then take an assessment that will measure their learning outcomes. The second lesson is where the treatment is going to take place. The experimental group will now use audio-visual aids during their discussions while the controlled group will still practice the traditional marker-and-board method. Another assessment is going to be conducted in order to measure the impacts of the treatment done to the experimental group. The average marks of the students during the assessments from both groups will be compared to determine if there is a statistically-significant difference between the learning outcomes of the controlled and experimental group.Data AnalysisThe results of the pre and post assessments will be analyzed using the statistical treatment called “z-test”. A z-test is a statistical test used to determine whether two population means are different when the variances are known and the sample size is large. The test statistic is assumed to have a normal distribution, and nuisance parameters such as standard deviation should be known for an accurate z-test to be performed (Silver C., 2018). Since the study involved two groups, the sample size is large enough, and the variances of the scores can be easily determined, this statistical analysis is appropriate for the study.Reliability and ValidityValidity and reliability are often interchangeable terms in everyday uses but when it comes to statistics and research, these two terms mean different things. Validity is when the questions answer what they are supposed to answer while reliability is when the data collected is consistent throughout multiple tests. This researchers addresses the threats to the validity and reliability of the study by making sure that the goals and objective are clearly defined and operationalized, aligning the instruments used with the goals and objectives, and by having experts in the field such as school faculties review the instruments used for corrections and feedbacks.Phase II: QualitativeData CollectionThe second phase of the data collection will focus on the feedbacks of the students about the usage of audio-visual aids during discussions in classrooms particularly in relation to their preferred learning styles. This phase will utilize a survey composed of open ended questions regarding the learning styles or preferences of the students and their experiences and opinions with the audio-visual technology. According to Walter Burke Barbe and colleagues, there are 7 different learning styles from which a person perceives and analyzes information. These styles are the following: visual or spatial (prefers using pictures, images, and spatial understanding), aural or auditory-musical (prefers using sound and music), verbal or linguistic (prefers using words, both in speech and writing), physical or kinesthetic (prefers using your body, hands and sense of touch), logical or mathematical (prefer using logic, reasoning and systems), social or interpersonal (prefer to learn in groups or with other people), and solitary or intrapersonal (prefers to work alone and use self-study). The different learning styles among the students will result to different responses to a particular teaching style (with or without audio-visual aids) and this phase seeks gather and analyze that data in qualitative means.Data AnalysisIn the second phase of the study, the data obtained through interviews or open ended questions will be coded and analyzed in order for them to be interpreted. This can be done by the following steps: (1) conducting preliminary exploration of the data by reading the responses, (2) by segmenting and labeling the text according to their central theme, (3) by grouping responses with similar codes and themes together, (4) interrelating the different codes and themes together, (5) then constructing an overall interpretation for the responses. This interpretation will then be used as an amplifier or support for the findings in the first phase.Establishing CredibilityEstablishing the credibility is crucial for a research because it is the basis of the legitimacy of the process and findings the study from the perspective of the participants and readers alike. The criteria for validity and reliability of quantitative research and credibility of qualitative research are different from one another. There are two most common methods of validating the credibility of the research, the triangulation and member-checking method. Triangulation involves using multiple methods, data sources, observers, or theories in order to gain a more complete understanding of the phenomenon being studied. It is used to make sure that the research findings are robust, rich, comprehensive, and well-developed. Triangulation involves using multiple methods, data sources, observers, or theories in order to gain a more complete understanding of the phenomenon being studied. It is used to make sure that the research findings are robust, rich, comprehensive, and well-developed. There are four types of triangulation that researchers can employ (Statistics Solution, 2017). The member-checking method on the other hand is a technique in which the data, interpretations, and conclusions are shared with the participants. It allows participants to clarify what their intentions were, correct errors, and provide additional information if necessary (Statistics Solution, 2017).Advantages and Limitations of the Sequential Research DesignThe strengths and weaknesses of sequential research design have been widely used in researches (Wegscheider, K., 2003).Advantages of the design are: (1) fully sequential designs can be used for the efficacy proof of a striking new therapy if a precise estimate of the amount of benefit is not required, (2) researchers are able to eliminate cultural or demographic factors from their findings, and (3) controlling for the cultural differences and time allow sequential studies to more accurately measure changes than other type of studies.The limitations of the design are: (1) the steady decrease in participation over time, referred to as “participant mortality”, and (2) most sequential studies merely observe the subjects without manipulating environmental factors.Research Permission and Ethical ConsiderationThe researchers will provide waivers that will explain to them the purpose of the research informing the participants of the possible harms to them which are not apparent and not directly affecting them. The names of the participants will be kept confidential and that the participants in the study would be allowed to withdraw from the study if they wish to withhold their test scores. The researchers determined that there will be no adverse health conditions that would affect them and that the teacher which keeps a record of the test scores will be given consent forms for the students and to be given permission to allow the researchers to gather the data needed.Role of the ResearchersThe researcher’s roles in the study are divided into three parts; debriefing phase, quantitative phase and qualitative phase.  In the first, debriefing phase the researcher’s role is to ensure that the participants in study will undergo debriefing to inform them of the nature and purpose of the research including the results of the study. Ethics defined as “set of principles which relate to a moral code specifying right from wrong” (Mukherji and Albon, 2010), for such, the researcher guarantees that such protocol will be followed.  This includes that participants must know what the study is all about and not to be misled about any certain aspects of the study. Procedures such as protecting the subjects from harm are also one of the responsibilities of the researcher. Any information or data materials gathered that will potentially risk the privacy of the respondents shall be erased after the study to respect their anonymity.In the second, quantitative phase, the researcher is task to collect data through acquiring the pre-and post- test of the participants of the study from the two groups; control and experimental to accomplish answers to the significance of integration of audio-visual technology to the learning outcomes of the students in Technological Institute of the Philippines.  The data analysis will be done using proper and correct statistical analysis techniques and the results will be interpret based on the establish values of the instruments or formula used.In the third, qualitative phase, the researcher will administer the paper-interview to the individuals, whom are respondents, which chosen according to criteria derived from the research objective. Then the researcher will collect the data by transcribing the answers of each respondent.  The analysis of the data will be performed by understanding the transcript and reducing bias as possible.  The data interpreted will be the researcher’s grounds to construct their beliefs within the framework of the result of the findings.