Aaron million square miles of AfricaIn the 1880s

Aaron MalasanWorld HistoryPeriod 31/18/2018White King, Red Rubber, Black Death NotesWhen a series of missionary photographs arrived in England in the late 19th century, they caused outrage.The children came from Congo, but the person accused of doing this was white, European, and royalLeopold the Second was the personal owner of 1 million square miles of AfricaIn the 1880s and 90s the world outside Africa wanted rubber for its bicycle industryLeopold’s Congo had the world’s most supply of rubberHe was determined to get as much rubber to Europe as fast as he couldOver a period of 20 years, Leopold made Congo into a vast labor camp, 80 times the size of BelgiumThis made him one of the richest men in the worldAs the number of death grew, so did his profitsThe longer the king stayed in the Congo, the more evidence was madeAt the time, there were calls for Leopold to be hangedInstead of being hanged, Leopold was reinvented as a great humanitarian kingLeopold built a building with his own money, but he didn’t say so openly, as this would prove he had a lot of money and people would start asking questionsThe building symbolizes a lie about BelgiumLeopold’s Congo was a prison stateAfricans had no rights, no justice, and no freedomThey were there to serve LeopoldIn Brussels, the statues of Leopold have not been taken downHis father called him a little Tyrant and his mother remarked how he was disfigured by his nose which gave him a bird like lookLeopold had a lack of love and was not popular, and said that affection never bothered him and said was never interested in popularity Leopold never had any doubts that the country needed more improvingOn December the 23rd, 1893, the state sent down canoes to the town where people were quietly sleeping in their bed when they heard sounds and saw they were surroundedWhen they tried to escape, they were brutally shot down and the town was torn down into ruins since that very dayLeon Fievez was a district commissioner in EquatorHe wrote that he killed 1,300 people to the governor, completely destroyed 162 villages, cut down plantations and vegetable gardens, and set them on fire so that the people would starve to deathFievez had no qualms about the level of brutalityHe perfectly understood that the state was only there to make moneyAll the blacks called Fievez, the Devil of the EquatorVery little has changed since Leopold’s timeLeopold doesn’t just transmit the Congo to Belgium, but the concession system as well, with all its corruption and all its associated abusesLeopold’s stranglehold lasted about 10 years until the plantations of Asia and South America became serious completionThe profits all went to Belgium, but how much went to the Royal Family today is still in speculationAs the 20th century began, King Leopold faced the first challenge, and it came from LondonIn 1900, a series of articles were published in The Speaker which caused a stirBecause the articles were anonymous, they aroused public curiosityThe author was Edmund Dene MorelEdmund Dene Morel was one of history’s most underestimated heroesHe didn’t have the king’s royal pedigree, but in everything else, Morel was more than a match for the kingMorel soon became a leading journalist on West Africa affairsAs the movement against Leopold gathered momentum, Morel decided to turn up the pressureLiverpool became the headquarters of the new Congo Reform AssociationIn 1904, Morel founds the Congo Reform Association, the first humanitarian movement of the 20th centuryFrom Liverpool he extends the movement across Great BritainMorel’s Congo Reform Association took the cruelty of Leopold’s Congo to public meetings across the countryMorel dragged the issue into the center of the national stageRed Rubber was published in 1906Leopold ordered the burning of all incriminating Congo state recordsIn 1908, Congo became a Belgium colonyBelgium gave the king 15 million francs as a mark of gratitudeLeopold died the following year, and requested a private funeral, but lost that requestIn his funeral, his cortege was booed as it passedLeopold by the end of his reign, had become the most hated man in Europe

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